Here is a dataset I have put together with the location and capacity for the stadiums for about 160 European teams. The teams are from England, Scotland, France, Germany and Spain. The data is taken from Wikipedia and should be correct for the last couple of seasons. The French team Lille’s stadium is the current from the 2012 season, and Nice’s stadium is not the current one, but the one they had until the end of last season.
Some of the coordinates are more accurate than others, but I think they should be accurate enough to at least give an indication of the town the team comes from. That is probably true for the teams that have recently moved to another stadium as well; they are probably within the same town. The Guardian has looked into how far English Premier League clubs have moved, and it is usually less than 10 kilometers.
The data table contains 8 columns. The FDCOUK column contains the names of the teams as they appear in data from football-data.co.uk/. Since the names in the FDCOUK column often is abbreviated, more complete names are found in the Team column. There is also a column with the name of the stadium, but I have not been consistent with the naming with regards to traditional names vs. sponsored names.
What can this data set be used for? One thing I want to look into is whether traveling distance for the visiting team in a match influences the home field advantage. I have a couple of other ideas as well, but that will be for another time.
Edit: Updated dataset after I found a trailing whitespace in the FDCOUK column.
Edit December 16 2013: Added two Spanish teams.
Edit March 2nd 2015: Added 27 English teams.